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2015中考话题作文写作指导

2015-03-05

  所谓话题作文,是指围绕一个谈话中心,按一定要求进行写作的一种作文形式。虽然话题作文的出题形式有一定的优越性——为学生提供了相对开放的空间,文体可自选,题目可自拟,立意可自定,但要审好题写好文并非易事。针对同学们在话题作文实践中存在的困惑,今天我们一起来探究一下问题的所在,寻求解决问题的办法。话题作文的自由度更大了,但同时对同学们的作文积累和自主要求更高了。在作文的时候,同学们要重点注意以下六个方面:

The so -called topic Composition refers to a form of composition that is written around a conversation center.Although the question form of the topic composition has a certain degree of superiority -provides students with relatively open space, the style can be selected, the topic can be self -made, and the determination can be determined, but it is not easy to review and write a good text.In response to the confusion of students in the practice of topics, we will explore the problems together today and seek solutions to solving problems.The degree of freedom of the topic composition is greater, but at the same time, the accumulation and independent requirements for the composition and autonomous composition are higher.During the composition, students should focus on the following six aspects:

  一、严——阅读材料,认真审题

1. Strict -Reading materials, carefully examine questions

  不少话题作文看似提倡自主,其实也有诸多限制,并非想写什么就写什么,想怎样写就怎样写。近几年的话题作文试题大多由话题材料、写作话题、具体写作要求三部分组成。 “话题作文”的审题,就包括审材料、审“话题”和审要求。材料是提出“话题”的媒介,划定了写作范围和思考对象,因此,它是“话题作文”审题的重点,必须认真阅读,深刻理解。

Many topic compositions seem to advocate autonomy. In fact, there are many restrictions. It is not written if you want to write whatever you want.In recent years, the topic composition questions are composed of topic materials, writing topics, and specific writing requirements.The topic of "topic composition" includes the review materials, the "topic" and the requirements for trial.The material is the medium of "topic", which delineates the scope of writing and thinking. Therefore, it is the focus of the "topic composition" review. It must be carefully read and deeply understand.

  譬如这样一道作文题:“不少人待人坦率诚恳,不虚假,不矫情,表里如一,心口如一,真心实意对待别人,当然,生活中也不尽如此。根据你所见所闻,写一篇有关坦诚待人的文章。”题目暗示我们可以写自己坦诚待人,也可以写别人对自己坦诚以待。“生活中也不尽如此”提示我们除了可以写正面的,也可以写反面的,即自己或别人不坦诚待人或未被坦诚相待方面的。作文时,既合乎材料,又合乎“话题”的文章内容,才不会超出题意的范围。如果考生仅仅局限在材料提供的内容本身来写“话题”,就束缚了表达自由;如果超出了“话题”限定的内容范围,考生写出的文章就会偏题、跑题。

For example, such a composition topic: "Many people treat others frankly, not false, not to be arrogant, the appearance is as one, and the heart is as good as the same, and of course, the life is not the same.An article that is frank. "The title implies that we can write ourselves frankly, or we can write frankly to ourselves."This is not the case in life." It is reminded that we can also write the opposite side, that is, we or others are not frank or not being frank.In composition, it is not only the content of the materials and the "topic", so that it will not exceed the scope of the meaning.If the candidates are limited to the content provided by the materials itself to write "topics", they will restrict the expression of freedom; if the content of the "topic" limited content is exceeded, the articles written by the candidates will be biased and running.

  所以,在日常的训练中,同学们就要从严要求,学会认真审题。

Therefore, in daily training, students must strictly ask to learn the questions carefully.

  二、佳——选好角度,拟个靓题

Two, Jia -Choose a good angle, draw a pretty question

  “眼为心窗,题为文眼。”一个新颖醒目的标题会令读者心驰神往、一读为快,令读者一见倾心、先入为主,正如芬芳的美酒,令人未饮先醉。精彩的话题作文标题如《空心看世界》《你不必完美》《花儿努力地开》《为自己准备一个鱼篓》《每天变傻一点点》《最美的是你自己》《放开手阳光灿烂》《遗憾也是一种美丽》《我丑,并不伪装美丽》《有你在,灯亮着》《生命不能承受之轻》《试吃一句陶渊明,免费!》《飘香的生命》《收藏昨天》《留只眼睛看自己》等。

"Eyes are the heart window, and the entitled text." A novel and eye -catching title will make the reader feel fascinating and read quickly, so that the reader is leaning and preconceived, just like the fragrant wine, which is not drunk.The wonderful topic composition titles such as "Watching the World", "You Don't Be Perfect", "Flowers Stay", "Prepare a Fish Basket for yourself", "A little stupid every day", "The most beautiful is yourself", "Let go of your hand sunlight"Splendid" "Regret is also a kind of beauty" "I'm ugly, not pretending to be beautiful" "You are there, lights are bright", "Light that life cannot bear", "Try to eat a sentence of Tao Yuanming, free!"Yesterday "" "Leave your eyes to see yourself" and so on.

  有些学生不重视话题作文的拟题,直接把话题作为文章的题目,使题目过于空泛,不能很好地反映文章的内容,揭示文章的中心。我们平时要加强拟题训练,尽可能把题目定得准确、生动、新颖。最基本的方法是把话题“前增后补,明点暗扣,化虚为实,化大为小”。譬如这样一篇话题作文:“请以‘生活’为话题,写一篇不少于600字的作文。”我们可以让学生围绕“生活”这个词语,根据文章内容把题目定为:《生活,阳光灿烂》、《二十年后的生活》、《我的理想生活》《生命,不仅仅是活着》等。为了避免拟题平淡、生硬,可以巧用比喻、拟人、夸张、双关、对比等修辞手法,还可以直接引用或化用学过或听过的诗词、歌曲、广告中的名句,加以修改作题目,增添文学色彩。新颖的题目,可以令人眼前一亮,一开始就获得好的印象。

Some students do not pay attention to the questions about the topic composition, and directly regard the topic as the topic of the article, so that the topic is too empty, and it cannot reflect the content of the article well and reveal the center of the article. We usually need to strengthen the training training, and try to make the topics accurately, vivid and novel as possible. The most basic method is to "increase the topic, make up the dark buckle, and turn the false into the real, and turn it into small." For example, such a topic composition: "Please use the" life 'as the topic, write a composition of not less than 600 words. "We can let students focus on the word" life ", and set the title according to the content of the article:" Life, The sun, "Life in Twenty Years", "My Ideal Life", "Life is not just alive" and so on. In order to avoid dull and rigidity, you can use the rhetoric methods such as metaphorical, anthropomorphic, exaggerated, dual levels, and comparison. You can also directly reference or use the famous sentences in poems, songs, and advertisements. , Add Literature color. The novel topic can be shiny, and you get a good impression from the beginning.

  三、稳——认真选体,展示特长

Three, steady -serious selection, display specialties

  话题作文不限体裁,学生可以结合自身特点和所长,“海阔凭鱼跃,天空任鸟飞”,努力让作文潜能得到最充分的发挥。但不限体裁不等于不讲文体,不是随心所欲、任意选择,只是放宽了对文体的限制,给考生创造了宽松选体的自由。同学们要根据自己的特长,发挥自己的优势,选择自己喜好或擅长的体裁。有些考生形象思维较强,想象力丰富,可以选择写记叙文,甚至可以编故事、写小说、拟童话;有些考生逻辑思维较强,看问题有深度,长于辨析,可以选择写议论性的问题;如果知识面广、语言积累丰富、情感细腻,可以选择写散文。“话题作文”虽然淡化了文体,但如果你擅长写记叙文,在记人叙事中必须体现记叙文的六个要素;如果你擅长写议论文,在逻辑严密的论证过程中,要有鲜明、正确的论点,要有充分有力的论据;如果你擅长写说明文,就要科学地说明事物的特征,运用恰当的说明方法,合理安排说明顺序,准确使用语言……总之,写什么必须是什么,写什么必须像什么。当然,对于一些文字驾御能力比较强的学生,还可以在稳中求新求变,别出心裁,采取书信、日记、电影剪辑、实验报告、剧本等形式。不过,对考场作文来说,考生应尽量选写记叙文(包括小小说),因为写记叙文,便于塑造丰满的人物形象,便于编制曲折的故事情节,也便于描绘逼真的画面,抒发真挚的感情。

The topic composition is not limited to genre. Students can combine their own characteristics and director. However, the unlimited genre does not mean that it does not talk about style. It is not free to choose or arbitrarily choice. It just relaxes the restrictions on the style and creates the freedom of loose selection for candidates. Students should use their own strengths to give play to their advantages and choose their preferences or good -looking genre. Some candidates have strong image thinking and rich imagination. They can choose to write narratives, and even compile stories, write novels, and do fairy tales. If you have a wide range of knowledge, rich language accumulation, and delicate emotions, you can choose to write prose. Although the "topic composition" faded the style, if you are good at writing narratives, the six elements of the narrative must be reflected in the narrative; if you are good at writing discussions, in the process of logically strict demonstrations, there must be clear and correct in the process of logical argumentation. The argument must have a sufficient argument; if you are good at writing the explanation, you must scientifically explain the characteristics of things, use the appropriate explanation method to reasonably arrange the order of explanation, and accurately use the language ... In short What must be like. Of course, for some students with strong royal ability, they can also seek new changes in stability, and take care of them. They adopt letters, diary , movie editing, experimental reports, script and other forms. However, for the composition of the examination room, candidates should try to write narratives (including small novels) as much as possible, because write narratives to facilitate the shape of a plump character, to make the tortuous storyline, and to paint realistic pictures and express their sincere feelings.

  四、新——合理立意,稳中求新

Four, new -reasonable determination, steadily seeking new

  古人曰:“意高则文胜。”一篇好的话题作文,除了有个好题目,选择恰当的体裁,还必须力求立意出新。这里的“新”,不是钻牛角尖,故作高深,怪异另类,而是在于显示你对社会、对人生的观察、思考和感悟,发他人之所未发而又言之有理。在日常作文训练中要注意发散思维,对同一事物学会从不同角度进行思考,多方比较甄别,选出最有新意而又最恰当的一面来立意。例如:同样是写的是步行街的建设,有人看到的是设计师的聪慧,有人看到的是施工者的勤劳,有人看到的是科学的进步,有人看到的是经济繁荣,有人看到的是维护设施环境的道德文明,还有人看到的是街旁凉亭长椅所体现的人文关怀。而后者,是较少人想到的,这种立意可以说是独树一帜,富有新意。

The ancients said: "If you are high, you wins." A good topic composition, in addition to a good topic, choose the appropriate genre, you must also strive to make new.The "new" here is not the horns of the horns, pretending to be high, weird and different, but to show your observation, thinking and perception of life and life, and make it reasonable for others.In daily composition training, you should pay attention to divergent thinking, learn to think about the same things from different angles, to identify many parties, and choose the most new and most appropriate side to choose.For example: the construction of the pedestrian street is also written. Some people see the intelligence of the designer. Some people see the hard work of the construction operator.It is the moral civilization that maintains the facility environment, and some people see the humanistic care reflected by the gazebo benches next to the street.The latter is thought of less people. This idea can be said to be unique and new.

  五、美——厚实积累,灵活运用

Five, beauty -thick accumulation, flexible use

  语言,是中考作文优劣评判的一个重要依据。评价一篇文章往往从内容、结构、语言三个方面进行,如果文章中有些语句比较优美或富有哲理,会为文章增色不少,读之令人口舌生香。话题作文的写作在这方面也应注意。如《自信》一文的开头:“人,如果缺乏要干成一番事业的自信,通向成功之路的航船就要在河滩搁浅,终生也托不起成功的巨轮。”如《珍惜》一文的开头:“时间是永恒的精灵,当你感到无所事事时,时间会在你漫不经心的一颦一笑中无声无息地溜走。”把精彩的、闪耀着智慧火花的话放在段首、段尾或独立成段,会更有机会让阅卷老师欣赏到,有利于提高分值。

Language is an important basis for judging the composition of the middle school entrance examination.Evaluation of an article is often carried out from three aspects: content, structure, and language. If some sentences are more beautiful or philosophical in the article, they will add a lot to the article and read it.The writing of topics should also be paid attention to in this regard.For example, the beginning of "Confidence": "People, if they lack the self -confidence of a career, the ships leading to the road of success will be stranded on the river beach, and they will not be able to support the huge round of success."At the beginning: "Time is an eternal elf. When you feel nothing, time will slip away silently in your careless smile." Putting the wonderful and sparks of wisdom at the beginning of the paragraph, the end of the paragraph or the end of the paragraphIndependence will have more opportunities to make the scroll teacher appreciate, which is conducive to improving the score.

  当然,美的语言要紧扣话题,言之有物,要避免华而不实、堆砌与主旨无关的华丽辞藻。要明白美的语言不能脱离实际的内容,死记硬背或仿作一些华丽句段,在写作时生搬硬套是不足取的。只有平时注意妙词佳句的积累和品味,注重文章内容的丰富和充实,才能在考试时让优美的词句在笔端自然而然地流淌。

Of course, the language of beauty must be closely related to the topic. In short, it is necessary to avoid the gorgeous rhetoric that has nothing to do with the purpose of being true and unrelated.It is necessary to understand that the beauty of the beautiful language cannot be separated from the actual content.Only when you usually pay attention to the accumulation and taste of good words and good sentences, and pay attention to the richness and fulfillment of the content of the article, can the beautiful words flow naturally when the test is exam .

  六、真——学会感动,抒写真情

6. True -Learn to move, express true feelings

  “夫缀文以动情”,文贵情真。胡编乱造、矫揉造作的空话、套话、假话打动不了读者的心。要感动别人,首先要感动自己。中考作文一向要求“感情真挚,思想健康”,只有在生活中用心观察、用心体验,作文时才能表达独特的经历,写出真情实感。近年的中考话题作文都比较贴近学生生活,倾向于考察学生对社会、对人生的体验、认识和思考,具有很强的情感倾向、理性色彩和人文精神。同学们平时的作文训练要努力彰显个性,积极关注社会、体验生活,学会自爱并热爱身边的人(包括家人、邻居、同学、老师),同情弱势群体,冷对不良现象,做一个热爱生命、关爱他人、具有丰富感情的鲜活的人。要避免过多模仿影视作品和言情小说的人物语言和情节,以我手写我心,所叙述的是真实的生活体验,所抒发的是真实的内心情感,所表达的是真切的思想感受,这样文章才能言之有物、以情动人。一位同学在《妈妈的手》一文中写到相依为命的妈妈下岗了,为了供自己读书,妈妈到几户人家当钟点工,有一天,发现妈妈柔软光滑的手变得粗硬了,不但起了茧,还布满了大大小小的伤口,心里感到揪心地疼,从此不再“少年不识愁滋味”,决心用稚嫩的肩膀和妈妈一起挑起生活的重担,把家务活包下来。全文没有豪言壮语,写的是生活小事,表达的是朴素的情感,却感人至深。可见,“世事洞明皆学问,人情练达即文章。”意欲作文,先学做人啊。

"Fujinwen is emotional", Wen Gui is true. Correspondingly, nonsense, contemporary empty words, words, and false words cannot move the readers' hearts. To move others, you must first move yourself. The composition of the middle school entrance examination has always required "sincere feelings and healthy thoughts". Only by observing and experienced in life can we express unique experiences during composition and write true feelings. In recent years, the topic of the high school entrance examination is relatively close to student life. He tends to examine students' experience, understanding and thinking about life and life, and has a strong emotional tendency, rational color and humanistic spirit.同学们平时的作文训练要努力彰显个性,积极关注社会、体验生活,学会自爱并热爱身边的人(包括家人、邻居、同学、老师),同情弱势群体,冷对不良现象,做一个热爱生命、 Caring for others and living people with rich feelings. To avoid excessive imitation of the characters and plots of film and television works and romance novels, I wrote my heart with my hand, describing the real life experience, expressing real inner emotions, expressing the true thoughts, so The article can be said with things and emotional. A classmate wrote in the article "Mom's Hand" and was laid off. In order to read books, my mother went to several households to work as an hour. One day, she found that her mother's soft and smooth hands became thick. Cocoons are also covered with large and small wounds, and I feel painful in my heart. From then on, I no longer "young people do not know the sorrow". They are determined to use their immature shoulders to provoke the burden of life with my mother and wrap the housework. The full text does not have a strong words, written in life, expressing simple emotions, but touching. It can be seen that "the world is all learned, and the human sentiment is to practice."

  [考题回放]

[Test question back]

  阅读下面的材料,按要求写一篇文章。

Read the following materials and write an article as required.

  在生活中,一些细小的东西常常被忽略。比如:一声叮咛,一个微笑,一句问候,一个小数点,一道小程序,一次小错误,一处小破绽……忽略是常有的,后果有大有小,有些事情忽略了也无大碍,但有些事情忽略了却会造成遗憾,形成伤害,酿成大错。有些时候,我们正在忽略的,可能就是最重要的。

In life, some small things are often ignored.For example: a dingling, a smile, a greeting, a decimal point, a small program, a small error at a time, a small flaw ... neglect is common.Some things are ignored, but it will cause regrets, cause damage, and cause big mistakes.Sometimes, what we are ignoring may be the most important.

  请以“忽略的,有时是最重要的”为话题,写一篇不少于600字的文章。

Please write an article of not less than 600 words based on the topic of "ignoring, sometimes the most important".

  要求:①立意自定。②文体自选。③题目自拟。④不得抄袭。⑤文中不得出现真实的人名、校名和地名。

Requirements: ① Determine self -determination.② Self -selected style.③ The topic is self -drafted.④ No plagiarism.⑤ There must be no real names, school names, and place names in the text.

  [满分作文]  有多少爱可以重来

[full score composition] How much love can come back

  “晚风轻拂澎湖湾,海浪逐沙滩……夜深黄昏的沙滩上,有着脚印两对半……”

"The evening wind brushes the Penghu Bay, the waves are beaches on the beach ... There are two and a half pairs of footprints on the beach at night and late ..."

  ——题记

--Inscription

  三年前的考场门口,外婆拍拍我的头,从怀里慢慢掏出一个桃子说:“青青,加油!”那一刻,我没有掉头。

Three years ago at the entrance of the test room, my grandmother patted my head and slowly took out a peach from my arms and said, "Qingqing, come on!" At that moment, I didn't turn around.

  三年后的今天,我手上拿着临走时妈妈塞给我的桃子在考场门口张望,却始终无法找到那个熟悉的身影在为我守候。

Today, three years later, when I was holding my hand, my mother stuffed my peach at the door of the examination room, but I couldn't find the familiar figure and waiting for me.

  猛然想起,外婆已经走了好久好久。

Suddenly, my grandmother had gone for a long time.

  依稀记得,外婆会变戏法,总是能从怀里掏出我想要的东西,就像芝麻糖、蚕豆、果冻,而最多的则是桃子。

Vaguely remembered that grandma would change the trick and always take out what I want from his arms, just like sesame sugar, broad beans, jelly, and the most is peaches.

  我爱吃桃子,却从未对外婆说过谢谢!

I love peaches, but I have never said thank you!

  妈妈说过:“青青,外婆从来舍不得吃桃子,都留给你吃了,你将来要好好对外婆。”每每于此时,我就跑到外婆跟前说:“外婆,你老了,我养你!”外婆笑了,笑得眼眶里都盈满了泪水。

My mother said: "Qingqing, grandma never reluctant to eat peaches, and leave it for you. You will be good at your grandmother in the future." At this time, I ran to my grandmother and said, "Grandma, you are old, I raise you, I will raise you! "Grandma smiled, and her eyes were full of tears.

  后来,我上了初中,面对更加沉重的学业负担,去外婆家的次数也越来越少,顶多外婆偶尔来我家几趟。但一看到我在做作业,便不忍打扰,放下桃子就走了。

Later, when I went to junior high school, in the face of a more heavy academic burden, the number of times I went to my grandmother's house was getting less and less. At most my grandmother came to my house occasionally.But as soon as I saw that I was doing homework, I couldn't bear to disturb, and let go of the peach.

  外婆病重时,我正在忙期终考试,当我拿着“结业考试第一名”的奖状赶回家时,那么多人围着外婆。我手上的奖状顿时掉在地上。妈妈拾起奖状,拉着我的手说:“外婆一直在等你!”我猛地跪在外婆床前,轻声呼唤她。外婆慢慢地从怀里掏出一个东西,那是——一只红艳艳的桃子!

When my grandmother was seriously ill, I was in the busy period. When I rushed home with the award of the first place in the exam, so many people surrounded my grandmother.The award in my hand suddenly fell to the ground.My mother picked up the prize and pulled my hand and said, "Grandma has been waiting for you!" I knelt in front of my grandmother's bed and called her softly.Grandma slowly pulled out a thing from her arms, that was -a red and gorgeous peach!

  外婆笑了,我却哭了,哭得泪流满面。外婆握住我的手慢慢松开,任凭我的哭声在屋内回荡却始终没能再看一眼她所舍不得的青青!

My grandmother laughed, but I cried, crying tears.My grandmother held my hand and slowly released, and my cry echoed inside the house but never looked at the Qingqing she couldn't bear!

  今天,我肩负着妈妈的嘱托,爸爸的期望,老师的祝福,还有外婆的守候坐在考场上答卷。我相信我不会让他们失望的。

Today, I shoulder my mother's entrustment, my father's expectations, the teacher's blessing, and the waiting for the elderly's waiting for the answer sheet.I believe I won't let them down.

  有些事,错过了就是永远;有些人,一转身就是一辈子。不要忽略任何爱,哪怕只是一个小小的桃子,因为毕竟有多少爱能够重头再来呢?

Some things are forever when you miss; some people turn around for a lifetime.Don't ignore any love, even if it is just a small peach, because after all, how much love can come back again?

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