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宋词的写作方法

2016-08-06

  宋代盛行的一种中国文学体裁,宋词是一种相对于古体诗的新体诗歌之一,小编收集了宋词的写作方法,欢迎阅读。
 

  (一)什么是词

(1) What is a word

  词最初称为“曲词”或“曲子词”,是配音乐的。后来逐渐和音乐分离了,成为诗的别体,所以有人把词称为“诗馀”。由于文人的词深受律诗的影响,所以词中的律句特别多。词是长短句,但是全篇的字数、句数是一定的,每句的字数、平仄也是一定的。

Words were originally called "song" or "song words", which are music.Later, it gradually separated from music and became a poem, so some people called the word "poetry".Because the literati's words are deeply influenced by the poem, there are many laws in the words.The word is long and short, but the number of words and sentences of the whole article is certain, and the number of words and flatness of each sentence is also certain.

  词大致可以分为三类:(1)小令;(2)中调;(3)长调。有人认为:58字以内为小令,59~90字为中调,91字以上为长调。这种分法未必科学,但大概情况还是如此的。

Words can be roughly divided into three categories: (1) small commands; (2) medium; (3) long tone.Some people think that: within 58 words, it is a small order, 59-90 words are central, and more than 91 words are long tone.This division is not necessarily scientific, but this is probably the case.

  (二)词牌的来历

(2) The origin of the word card

  词牌,就是词的格式的名称。词的格式和律诗不同,律诗只有四种格式,而词则总共有两千多种格式(按钦定词谱)。词的这些格式称为词谱。

The word card is the name of the format of the word.The format of the words is different from the rhythmic poems. There are only four formats in the rhythmic poetry, while the words have a total of more than 2,000 formats (according to the spectrum of the verdant).These formats of words are called spectrum.

  关于词牌的来源,大概有下面三种情况:

About the source of the word cards, there are about three situations below:

  (1)本来是乐曲的名称。如《菩萨蛮》、《西江月》、《风入松》、《蝶恋花》等。这些有的来自于民间,有的来自于宫廷或官方。

(1) The name of the music was originally.Such as "Bodhisattva", "Xijiang Moon", "Wind into Songsong", "Butterfly Love Flowers" and so on.Some of these come from the folk, and some come from the court or the official.

  (2)摘取一首词中的几个字作为词牌。

(2) Pick a few words in a word as the word card.

  (3)本来就是词的题目。《浪淘沙》咏的是浪淘沙,《更漏子》咏夜,《抛球乐》咏抛球,等等。这是最普遍的。凡是词牌下面注明“本意”的,就是说,词牌同时是词题,不另有题目了。

(3) The title of the word was originally."Lang Tao Sand" chants Langtao Sha, "More Low" chanting night, "Throwing the Ball" chanting the ball, and so on.This is the most common.The "original meaning" indicated under the word card, that is, the word card is also a title, no other topic.

  但是,绝大多数的词都不是用“本意”的,因此,词牌之外还有词题。一般在词牌下面或后面注明词题。这种情况下,词题和词牌没有任何联系。一首《浪淘沙》可以完全不提到浪和沙;一首《忆江南》也可以完全不提到江南。这样,词牌只不过是词谱的代号罢了。

However, most of the words are not "original", so there are words outside the word cards.Generally, the word topics are specified under or later.In this case, there is no connection between the title and word card.A "Lang Tao Sha" can not mention Lang and Sand at all; a song "Recalling Jiangnan" can also be referred to Jiangnan at all.In this way, the word card is just the code of the spectrum.

  (三)单调、双调、三叠、四叠

(3) Monochrome, double tone, three -stack, four stacks

  词有单调、双调、三叠、四叠的分别。

The words are monotonous, double -tuned, triad, and four stacked.

  1、单调的词往往就是一首小令,它很象一首诗,不过是长短句罢了。

1. Monocel words are often a small order. It is like a poem, but it is a long and long sentence.

  2、双调的词可以是小令、中调或长调。双调就是把一首词分成前后(或上下)两阕。两阕的字数相等或基本相等平仄、句式相同或部分相同,也可以完全不同。字数、平仄、句式相同的就象一首曲子配着两段歌词。字数、平仄、句式不相同的,往往是开头几句不一样,叫做“换头”。

2. The two -tone words can be a small order, median or long tone.Double tone is to divide a word into two (or up and down).The two -阕 word is equal or basically equal or the same or part of the sentence, which can be completely different.Words, flat, and sentences are the same like a song with two lyrics.The number of words, flat, and sentence patterns are often different in the beginning, called "change head".

  3、三叠就是三段,如《兰陵王》、《西河》等。四叠就是四段,仅《莺啼序》一调。不再详述!

3. Three stacks are three paragraphs, such as "Lanling King", "Xihe" and so on.Four stacks are four stages, only one tone of "Ying Cry Preface".No more details!

  二、正体和变体

2. Positive and variants

  (一)正体和变体,二者的区别和联系

(1) The difference and connection between the two and variants, the difference between the two

  在读宋词时,有时会遇到这样一种情况,两首词的词牌一样,但是字数、句数、句读、押韵等方面却不完全相同,这是因为词牌有正体和变体之分。如《卜算子》:

When reading Song Ci, sometimes you encounter such a situation. The word cards of the two words are the same, but the number of words, numbers, sentences, rhymes, etc. are not exactly the same.Such as "Butu":

  《卜算子》

"Butu"

  四十四字 双调。别名:《缺月挂疏桐》《百尺楼》《楚天遥》《眉峰碧》等

Forty -four words double tone.Alias: "The Moon Large Moon", "Hundred Geng Building", "Chu Tianyao", "Mei Peak Bi", etc.

  ●正体

● Positive body

  仄仄仄平平,仄仄平平仄。仄仄平平仄仄平,仄仄平平仄。

Pingping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.Pingping Ping Ping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.

Pingping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.Pingping Ping Ping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.

  仄仄仄平平,仄仄平平仄。仄仄平平仄仄平,仄仄平平仄。

Pingping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.Pingping Ping Ping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.

Pingping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.Pingping Ping Ping Ping Ping, Pingping Ping Ping.

  《卜算子》

"Butu"宋· 苏轼

  缺月挂疏桐,漏断人初静。时见幽人独往来,缥缈孤鸿影。

The lack of the moon hangs the sparse Tong, leaking the first quietness.When you see the uniqueness of you, you are lonely and lonely.

  惊起却回头,有恨无人省。拣尽寒枝不肯栖,寂寞沙洲冷。

I was shocked but turned back, hate no one.Pick the cold branches and refuse to live, and the lonely sandbar is cold.

  《卜算子 》宋·陆游

"Butu" Song · Luyou

  驿外断桥边,寂寞开无主。已是黄昏独自愁,更著风和雨。

Broken by the post, loneliness is lonely.It was already at dusk to worry alone, and the wind and rain were more at dusk.

  无意苦争春,一任群芳妒。零落成泥碾作尘,只有香如故。

Unintentionally fighting for spring, a group of groups of jealousy.Silled into mud and mud, only fragrant.

  ●变体(一)

● Variation (1)

  下阕首句变“仄仄平平仄”,四十四字

The first sentence of the lower junction becomes "Pingping Pingping", forty -four characters

  例:《卜算子》宋·严蕊

Example: Song Yan Yan Rui

  不是爱风尘,似被前缘误。花落花开自有时,总赖东君主。

It is not love of wind and dust, it seems to be mistaken by the front.Sometimes the flowers are blooming, and sometimes Lai Dongjun.

  去也终须去,住也如何住!若得山花插满头,莫问奴归处。

If you go, you have to live, how to live! If the mountain flowers are inserted, Mo Wennu returns.

  ●变体(二)首句变“平平仄仄平”,四十四字

● Variation (2) The first sentence becomes "Pingping Ping Ping", 44 words

  《卜算子》

"Butu"宋·杨冠清

  苍生喘未苏,贾笔论孤愤。文采风流今尚存,毫发无遗恨。

Cangsheng was panting, and Jia Bi was lonely.The literary talent is still there, and there is no hate.

  凄恻近长沙,地僻秋将尽。长使英雄泪满襟,天意高难问。

Near Changsha, the autumn of the ground will be exhausted.The long -lasting hero was full of tears, and he was hard to ask.

  ●变体(三)上下阕首句变“仄仄平平仄”,四十四字

● Variation (3) The first sentence of the upper and lower sentences becomes "Pingping Pingping", forty -four words

  《卜算子》

"Butu"宋·石孝友

"Bu Tongzi" Song Shi Xiaoyou

  见也如何暮,别也如何遽。别也应难见也难,后会无凭据。

See how twilight, don't let it go.It should not be difficult to see, and there will be no credentials.

  去也如何去,住也如何住。住也应难去也难,此际难分付。

How to go, how to live.Living should be difficult and difficult, it is difficult to pay for this.

  ●变体(四)下阕末句变“仄仄仄,平平仄”,四十五字

● Variation (4) The end of the lower sentence becomes "仄 囧 仄, Pingping", forty -five characters

  《卜算子》

"Butu"李之仪

  我住长江头,君住长江尾。日日思君不见君,共饮长江水。

I live in Changjiang, and I live in the end of the Yangtze River.Drinking the Yangtze River water every day, I don't see the monarch.

  此水几时休,此恨何时已。只愿君心似我心,定不负、相思意。

When is this water rest, when does this hate have already been?I only hope that Jun's heart is like my heart.

  ●变体(五)上阕首句变“平平仄仄平”下阕首句变“仄仄平平仄”,末句变成“平仄仄,平平仄”,四十五字。

● Variation (5) The first sentence of the first sentence becomes "Pingping Ping Ping" and the first sentence becomes "Pingping Ping Ping".

  《卜算子》

"Butu"宋·徐俯

  天生百种愁,挂在斜阳树。绿叶阴阴自得春,草满莺啼处。

Born a hundred sorrows, hanging in the oblique sun.The green leaves are springing, and the grass is full of Yingying.

  不见凌波步,空忆如簧语。柳外重重叠叠山,遮不断、愁来路。

There is no Ling Bobu, the empty memory is like a spring language.Liuwai stacked the mountains, covering continuous and worrying.

  ●变体(六)上阕首句变“平平仄仄平”下阕首句变“仄仄平平仄”,上下阕末句变成“仄平仄,平平仄”。四十六字

● Variation (Six) The first sentence of the first sentence becomes "Pingping Ping Ping" and the first sentence becomes "Pingping Pingping", and the last sentence of the upper and lower sentences becomes "Pingping, Ping Ping Bo".Forty -six characters

  《卜算子》

"Butu"宋·杜安世

"Butu" Song Du Anshi

  尊前歌一曲,歌里千重意。才欲歌时泪已流,恨应更、多于泪。

Zunqian song, the song in the song.When you want to sing, tears have flowed, and hate should be more than tears.

  试问缘何事?不语如痴醉。我亦情多不忍闻,怕和我、成憔悴。

What about what happened?I can't bear to smell it, I am afraid of being with me and haggard.

  ●变体(七)上下阕首句变“仄仄平平仄” 上阕末句“仄仄仄,平平仄”,下阕末句“平平仄仄平平仄”,四十七字

● Variation (seven) The first sentence of the upper and lower sentences becomes "Pingping Pingping" upper sentence "仄仄, Pingping", the last sentence "Pingping Pingping Ping Ping", forty -seven characters

  《眉峰碧》宋·无名氏

"Mei Peak Bi" Song · Anonymous

  蹙破眉峰碧,纤手还重执。镇日相看未足时,忍便使鸳鸯隻!

Breaking the eyebrow peaks, the fiber hand was still heavily.When the town is not enough, tolerance makes the puppet only!

  薄暮投村驿,风雨愁通夕。窗外芭蕉窗里人,分明叶上心头滴。

The twilight village post, the wind and rain are sad and sad.The people in the banana window outside the window, the heart of clear leaves.

  ●综述:上下阕首句可以换“(仄)仄平平仄”,并入韵;或者用“平平仄仄平”。上下阕末句可以换成“(仄)(仄)仄,平平仄”。在《眉峰碧》里,下阕末句变成了“平平仄仄平平仄”。除掉《眉峰碧》以外,44~46字体总共变化组合为36种。据《唐宋词学大辞典》,《卜算子》有变体30余种。 但是众多的体,只有一种使用最多,便成了正体。 正体和变体之间,既有相同之处,使它们共有一个词牌名,又有不同之处,区别成许多变体,还生成一些别名。

● Summary: The first sentence of the upper and lower junctions can be changed to "(仄) Pingping 仄" and incorporate the rhyme; or use "Ping Ping Ping Ping".The last sentence of the upper and lower sentences can be replaced with "(仄) (仄) 仄, Pingping 仄".In "The Peak Bi Bi", the end of the lower sentence became "Pingping Pingping Ping Ping".Except for "Mei Peak Bi", a total of 36 types of 44-46 fonts were combined in a total of 36 types.According to the "Dictionary of the Tang and Song Ciology", there are more than 30 variants in "Budou".However, only one body, only one is used most, becomes a positive body.Between positive and variants, there is both the same place, so that they have a word -name name, and there are differences. The differences become many variants, and they also generate some aliases.

  (二)同调异名

(2) Similar names

  同样一个词牌,可以有不同的名称,《忆江南》又名《望江南》《江南好》《春去也》《望江楼》《梦江南》《望江梅》等。《菩萨蛮》 又名《子夜歌》《重叠金》《梅花句》等。《卜算子》又名《缺月挂疏桐》《百尺楼》《楚天遥》《眉峰碧》等。

The same word card can have different names, "Recalling Jiangnan", also known as "Wangjiang South", "Jiangnan Good", "Spring Going", "Wangjiang Tower", "Dream Jiangnan", "Wangjiang Mei" and so on."Bodhisattva Man", also known as "Zi Night Song", "Overlapping Gold", "Plum Blossoms" and so on."Bu Yongzi", also known as "Moon Large Moon, Sluthars", "Hundred Geng Building", "Chu Tianyao", "Mei Peak Bi" and so on.

  贺铸是一个比较喜欢新创别名的词人,很多词牌的多数别名都是贺铸创造的,这给读者带来不少麻烦。在写词时,除特殊需要,最好用正名,不要用别名。

He Zhu is a poem who prefers the newly -created aliases. Most of the aliases of many words are created by He Zhu, which brings a lot of trouble to readers.When writing words, except for special needs, it is best to use the name, do not use aliases.

  (三)同名异调

(3) Aliens of the same name

  还有一种情况,两首词的词牌名一样,可是格式迥然不同!这属于同名异调。例如:《如梦令》和《阮郎归》都有一个别名叫《宴桃源》;《浪淘沙》和《谢池春》都有一个别名叫《卖花声》。这样的情况还有许多。

There is another case. The word name of the two words is the same, but the format is very different! This belongs to the same name.For example: "Ru Meng Ling" and "Ruan Lang Gui" both have an alias called "Yan Taoyuan"; "Lang Tao Sha" and "Xie Chun" both have an alias called "Selling Flowers".There are many such situations.

  三、填词

Third, lyrics

  (一)依声填词

(1) 依 依 依 依 (

  细分为二种:

Subsidium into two types:

  1、词人精通音律,会自己作曲,可以直接按曲谱填词!又称“按谱填词”柳永、周邦彦、姜夔、吴文英等人属此!

1. The poet is proficient in the rhythm and will compose it by himself. You can directly follow the songs! Also known as "spectrum" Liu Yong, Zhou Bangyan, Jiang Yan, Wu Wenying and others belonged to this!

  2、词人不会作曲,但是能听懂曲调,按曲调填词,又称“按箫填词”。苏轼、秦观、贺铸、辛弃疾等属此!

2. The poet does not compose, but he can understand the tunes, and write the lyrics according to the tune, also known as "I write the lyrics".Su Shi, Qin Guan, He Zhu, Xin Qiji, etc. belong to this!

  (二)依句填词

(2) Write lyrics according to the sentence

  词人不懂音律,只能按前人作品的句式、每句的平仄格式填词。陆游、刘过等人属此,南宋多数词人都如此。这种填词法填出来的作品和依声填词的作品在平仄上是看不出来的,现在按词谱填词属此。

The poet does not understand the rhythm, and can only write the lyrics according to the sentence pattern of the previous works and the flat format of each sentence.Lu You, Liu Guo and others belonged to this, and most of the poets in the Southern Song Dynasty were the case.The works filled out by this kind of lyrics and the works of lyrics are invisible on the Pingzhang.

  (三)自度曲和自过腔

(3) Self -telp and self -overrouts

  通晓音律的词人,自摆歌词,又能自己谱写新的曲调,这叫做自度曲,有时也叫自度腔。

The poets who know the rhythm, set the lyrics, can also write new tunes by themselves.

  宋代有不少词人,都深通音乐,他们做了词,便自己能够作曲,故词集中 常见有“自度曲”。一般说来凡是自度曲,至少都应当注明这个曲子的宫调,或者在词序中说明。

There are many poets in the Song Dynasty, all of which have deep music. When they do words, they can compose themselves.Generally speaking, all the self -songs should be indicated at least the palace tone of this song, or it should be explained in the preface.

  自过腔和自度曲的含义是不同的。“过腔”,仅是音律上的改变,并不影响到歌词句格。所谓“过腔”者,是从此一腔调过入另一腔调,念奴娇的腔调稍变,即可另外题一个调名曰湘月。但这仅是歌曲腔调的改动,并不影响到歌词句格。后世词家,已不懂宋词音律,只能以词调的句格同异为类别,无法从句法相同的两首词中区别其腔调之不同。念奴娇和湘月,永遇乐和消息,句法既然一样,从文学形式的角度来看,湘月即念奴娇, 消息即永遇乐。至于二者之间,腔调不同,却不能从字句中看得出来。

The meaning of self -over cavity is different."Over the cavity" is just a change in the rhythm and does not affect the lyrics sentence.Those who are so -called "over the cavity" have since been adjusted into another tone. The tone of Nian Jiao's cavity has changed slightly, and one other is called Xiangyue.But this is just a change in the tone of the song and does not affect the lyrics sentence.Later generations, I do n’t understand the rhythm of Song Ci. They can only use the same differences in the syntax of words as categories. They cannot distinguish their tones from the same two words.Niannu Jiao and Xiangyue, Yong Yule and the news. From the perspective of literary forms, Xiangyue Nian Jiao Jiao, the news is Yong Yule.As for the two, the tone is different, but it cannot be seen from the words.

  自过腔既然不是创调,它就和自度曲不同。但有些宋代词人还是把自过腔编到自制曲中,因此,有些时候仍把自过腔作为自度曲的。


  四、词的平仄规律。

Fourth, the law of words.

  词的平仄句法是有规律的,但是又比律诗复杂许多。

The flat sentences of words are regular, but they are much more complicated than law poetry.

  (一)“句”与“豆”

(1) "Sentence" and "Bean"

  词的句法里有“句”和“豆(读)”。句,大家都不难理解。豆是什么呢?它是词的特点之一。

There are "sentences" and "bean (reading)" in the sentences of words.Sentences, it is not difficult to understand.What is the beans? It is one of the characteristics of the word.

  1、一字豆

1. One word beans

  介绍词谱时,有的句子是上一下四,这第一个字就是一字豆。这种五字句相当于一字豆加上一个四字句,和律诗中的律句是不一样的。例如:辛弃疾《沁园春》“正惊湍直下”应该读成“正——惊湍直下”而不能读成“正惊——湍直下”。一字豆常用仄声,仄声中又常用去声,很少用平声。

When introducing the spectrum, some sentences are upper four. The first word is a word beans.This five -character sentence is equivalent to one word beans and a four -character sentence, which is different from the laws in the law poetry.For example: Xin Qiji's "Qin Yuanchun" "Zheng Zhe Tiroki" should be read as "positive -turbulent straight down" and cannot be read as "positive shock -turbulent down".One word bean is commonly used, and the sound of nobility is often used, and rarely uses flat sounds.

  2、三字豆

2. Three -character beans

  还有的句子是上三下四、上三下五、上三下六等等。例如:《满江红》“凭栏处、潇潇雨歇。”就是上三下四,前三字就是三字豆!不能读成“凭栏——处潇——潇雨歇。”三字豆常用仄平平、仄仄平、仄仄仄、仄平仄、平仄仄、平平仄,少用平仄平,禁止用平平平,切记。

There are also sentences, three, four, three, five, three, three, and six.For example: "Man Jiang Hong" "Putting at the bar, Xiaoxiao Rain break.", Ping Ping, 囧 仄, 仄 仄, Ping Ping, Pingping, Ping Ping less, prohibit Pingping, remember.

  (二)律句和拗句;1~11字句的规律。

(2) The laws and sentences of the law; the laws of 1 to 11 sentences.

  介绍诗律时我们谈论过律诗的句子有律句和拗句之分,同样,词的句子也有律句和拗句之分。而且有许多相似点,此外,词的拗句还可以细分为常见拗句、少见拗句和罕见拗句。常见拗句使用频率高,接近某些律句。少见拗句频率低,一般不用,特殊情况下可以使用。罕见拗句很罕见,往往见于少见词牌(特别是长调),而且是该词调的特征性句子。

When introducing the poetic law, we talked about the sentences of the laws and sentences of the poems. Similarly, the sentences of the words also have the distinction between the laws and the sentence.And there are many similar points. In addition, the words of words can also be subdivided into common sentences, rare sentences and rare sentences.Common sentences are frequently used, close to certain laws.The frequency of rare sentences is low, generally not in use, it can be used in special circumstances.Rare sentences are rare, often seen in rare words (especially long tone), and it is a characteristic sentence of the tone.

  1、一字句 律句:平 仄

1. One word sentence sentence: Ping 囧

  一字句很罕见,《十六字令》的第一句是一字句“平。”《钗头凤》上下阕末句可以看作叠用的三个一字句“仄、仄、仄。”。

The first sentence is very rare. The first sentence of "Sixteen Characters" is "Ping." "The Phoenix" on the upper and lower sentences of "钗 头 一" can be regarded as the three -word sentence "仄, 仄, 仄.".

  2、二字句

2. Two words

  律句:平平、平仄。 少见拗句:仄仄。 罕见拗句:仄平

Law sentences: Pingping, Ping Ping.Rare sentences: 仄仄.Rare sentence: 拗 拗

  “平平”、“平仄”常用,往往要入韵。而“仄仄”很少见,“仄平”更罕见。

"Pingping" and "Pingzhang" are commonly used and often enter the rhyme."少 很" is rare, and "Pingping" is even more rare.

  (1)用“平平”的例如《南乡子》上下阕第四句:

(1) The fourth sentence of the upper and lower sentences of "Pingping", for example, "Nanxiangzi":

  《南乡子·登京口北固亭有怀》宋·辛弃疾

"Nanxiangzi · Dengjingkou Beigu Pavilion has a pregnant" Song Xin Qiji

  何处望神州?满眼风光北固楼。千古兴亡多少事?悠悠!不尽长江滚滚流。

Where to look at Shenzhou? The eyes are full of scenery.How many things do you die in the ages? Youyou!

  年少万兜鍪,坐断东南战未休。天下英雄谁敌手?曹刘!生子当如孙仲谋。

Young was a young man, and he was cut off in the southeast war.Who is the enemy in the world? Cao Liu! Being a child should be like Sun Zhongmou.

  (2)用“平仄”的例如《如梦令》第五、六句,而且常用叠句:

(2) The fifth and sixth sentences of "Ru Dream Order" are used in "Pingzhang", and the commonly used sentences are commonly used:

  《如梦令》 宋·李清照

"Ru Dream Order" Song Li Qingzhao

  昨夜雨疏风骤,浓睡不消残酒。试问卷帘人,却道海棠依旧。知否?知否?应是绿肥红瘦!

Last night, the rain and the wind were suddenly stubborn.I would like to ask the roller, but the begonia was still.Do you know? Do you know? It should be green, fat, red and thin!

  (3)有些词调下阕首句是五字句或六字句,可以拆成2+3或2+4的句式。这时的二字句必须入韵。例如:

(3) The first sentence of some words is five -character sentences or six -character sentences, which can be disassembled into 2+3 or 2+4 sentence patterns.At this time, the words must be entered.E.g:

  《满庭芳》下阕首句“平平平仄仄”可以变成“平平,平仄仄。”

The first sentence "Pingping Ping Ping" in "Man Tingfang" can become "Pingping, Ping Ping."

  《霜天晓角》下阕首句“(平)平平仄仄”可以变成“(平)仄、平仄仄。”“仄仄”也见于这句。

The first sentence "(Ping) Ping Ping Ping" can be turned into "(Ping), Ping Ping." "仄" is also found in this sentence.

  《沁园春》下阕首句可以变成“平平,(仄)仄平平。”

The first sentence of "Qinyuanchun" can become "flat, (仄) flat flat."

  3、三字句

3. Three -character sentence

  律句:平平仄、平仄仄、仄平平、仄仄平。

Law sentences: Pingping, Ping Ping, Pingping Ping, Ping Ping.

  常见拗句:仄仄仄、仄平仄。

Common sentences: 仄仄 仄, Pingping.

  少见拗句:平仄平、平平平。

Rare sentences: Ping Ping Ping, Pingping.

  (1)律句如果单独使用,往往不用“仄仄平”。“平平仄”和“平仄仄”往往可以变通。

(1) If the law is used separately, it is often not necessary to "仄 仄 仄"."Pingping" and "Ping Ping" can often change.

  (2)拗句“仄平仄”往往可以替换“平(仄)仄”。“仄仄仄”往往可以用“仄平仄”、“平仄仄”等变通。

(2) Sentence "Ping Ping 仄" can often replace "Ping (Ping)"."+ 仄 仄" can often be changed with "Pingping" and "Pingzhang".

  (3)“平仄平”、“平平平”较少见,《长相思》上下阕首句可以用。例如:

(3) "Ping Ping Ping" and "Ping Ping" are rare.E.g:

  林逋《长相思》

Lin Yan's "Small Academic Blanc"

  吴山青,越山青。两岸青山相送迎。谁知离别情。

Wu Shanqing, Youshan Qing.The green mountains on both sides of the strait are greeted.Who knows to be affectionate.

  君泪盈,妾泪盈。罗带同心结未成,江头潮已平。

Jun tears, tears.Luo Bai was unpredictable, and Jiangtou tide was flat.

  (4)两个三字句组合,常见的有:

(4) The combination of two three -character sentences, common ones:

  平仄仄,仄平平。《捣练子》、《渔父》、《鹧鸪天》等。在小令里,这种格式非常严格,不能变通。在长调里,前句前2字往往可平可仄。切记:后句第二字不能用仄。

Ping Ping, Pingping Ping."Practice", "Fisherman", "Sky" and so on.In the small order, this format is very strict and cannot be changed.In the long tone, the first two words in the previous sentence are often flat and flat.Remember: The second word in the last sentence cannot be used.

  仄平平,平仄仄。《苏幕遮》、《祝英台近》等。

Pingping, Ping Ping."Su Masao", "Zhu Yingtai Close" and so on.

  (仄)(仄)仄,(仄)平仄。《相见欢》、《满江红》等。

(仄) (仄) 仄, (仄) flat."Meeting Huan", "Man Jiang Hong" and so on.

  仄平平,仄平平。《江城子》。

Pingping Ping Ping, 仄 Pingping."Jiangchengzi".

  仄仄平,仄仄平。《长相思》。

Ping Ping, 仄仄 ping."Small Blanc".

  (5)三个、四个三字句组合。常见的有:

(5) Combination of three and four three -character sentences.Common are:

  平仄仄,仄平平。仄平平。《诉衷情》

Ping Ping, Pingping Ping.Pingping."Costy"

  (仄)(平)仄,(平)(仄)仄,仄平平。《水调歌头》、《六州歌头》

(仄) (Ping) 仄, (Ping) (仄) (仄) 仄, 仄 flat."Water Tuning Songs", "Six State Songs"

  一字豆领四个三字句,如《六州歌头》下阕首句:仄——平(平)仄,(平)(平)仄,(平)(平)仄,仄平平。

One word beans collar four three -character sentences, such as "Six State Songs". The first sentence: 仄 — 仄 (Ping) 仄, (Ping) (Ping) (Ping), (Ping) (Ping) (Ping) 仄, 仄 flat.


  四、词的平仄规律。

  词的平仄句法是有规律的,但是又比律诗复杂许多。

  (一)“句”与“豆”

  词的句法里有“句”和“豆(读)”。句,大家都不难理解。豆是什么呢?它是词的特点之一。

  1、一字豆

  介绍词谱时,有的句子是上一下四,这第一个字就是一字豆。这种五字句相当于一字豆加上一个四字句,和律诗中的律句是不一样的。例如:辛弃疾《沁园春》“正惊湍直下”应该读成“正——惊湍直下”而不能读成“正惊——湍直下”。一字豆常用仄声,仄声中又常用去声,很少用平声。

  2、三字豆

  还有的句子是上三下四、上三下五、上三下六等等。例如:《满江红》“凭栏处、潇潇雨歇。”就是上三下四,前三字就是三字豆!不能读成“凭栏——处潇——潇雨歇。”三字豆常用仄平平、仄仄平、仄仄仄、仄平仄、平仄仄、平平仄,少用平仄平,禁止用平平平,切记。

  (二)律句和拗句;1~11字句的规律。

  介绍诗律时我们谈论过律诗的句子有律句和拗句之分,同样,词的句子也有律句和拗句之分。而且有许多相似点,此外,词的拗句还可以细分为常见拗句、少见拗句和罕见拗句。常见拗句使用频率高,接近某些律句。少见拗句频率低,一般不用,特殊情况下可以使用。罕见拗句很罕见,往往见于少见词牌(特别是长调),而且是该词调的特征性句子。

  1、一字句 律句:平 仄

  一字句很罕见,《十六字令》的第一句是一字句“平。”《钗头凤》上下阕末句可以看作叠用的三个一字句“仄、仄、仄。”。

  2、二字句

  律句:平平、平仄。 少见拗句:仄仄。 罕见拗句:仄平

  “平平”、“平仄”常用,往往要入韵。而“仄仄”很少见,“仄平”更罕见。

  (1)用“平平”的例如《南乡子》上下阕第四句:

  《南乡子·登京口北固亭有怀》宋·辛弃疾

  何处望神州?满眼风光北固楼。千古兴亡多少事?悠悠!不尽长江滚滚流。

  年少万兜鍪,坐断东南战未休。天下英雄谁敌手?曹刘!生子当如孙仲谋。

  (2)用“平仄”的例如《如梦令》第五、六句,而且常用叠句:

  《如梦令》 宋·李清照

  昨夜雨疏风骤,浓睡不消残酒。试问卷帘人,却道海棠依旧。知否?知否?应是绿肥红瘦!

  (3)有些词调下阕首句是五字句或六字句,可以拆成2+3或2+4的句式。这时的二字句必须入韵。例如:

  《满庭芳》下阕首句“平平平仄仄”可以变成“平平,平仄仄。”

  《霜天晓角》下阕首句“(平)平平仄仄”可以变成“(平)仄、平仄仄。”“仄仄”也见于这句。

  《沁园春》下阕首句可以变成“平平,(仄)仄平平。”

  3、三字句

  律句:平平仄、平仄仄、仄平平、仄仄平。

  常见拗句:仄仄仄、仄平仄。

  少见拗句:平仄平、平平平。

  (1)律句如果单独使用,往往不用“仄仄平”。“平平仄”和“平仄仄”往往可以变通。

  (2)拗句“仄平仄”往往可以替换“平(仄)仄”。“仄仄仄”往往可以用“仄平仄”、“平仄仄”等变通。

  (3)“平仄平”、“平平平”较少见,《长相思》上下阕首句可以用。例如:

  林逋《长相思》

  吴山青,越山青。两岸青山相送迎。谁知离别情。

  君泪盈,妾泪盈。罗带同心结未成,江头潮已平。

  (4)两个三字句组合,常见的有:

  平仄仄,仄平平。《捣练子》、《渔父》、《鹧鸪天》等。在小令里,这种格式非常严格,不能变通。在长调里,前句前2字往往可平可仄。切记:后句第二字不能用仄。

  仄平平,平仄仄。《苏幕遮》、《祝英台近》等。

  (仄)(仄)仄,(仄)平仄。《相见欢》、《满江红》等。

  仄平平,仄平平。《江城子》。

  仄仄平,仄仄平。《长相思》。

  (5)三个、四个三字句组合。常见的有:

  平仄仄,仄平平。仄平平。《诉衷情》

  (仄)(平)仄,(平)(仄)仄,仄平平。《水调歌头》、《六州歌头》

  一字豆领四个三字句,如《六州歌头》下阕首句:仄——平(平)仄,(平)(平)仄,(平)(平)仄,仄平平。

1.扩写作文

2.赠汪伦改写作文

3.《清平乐·村居》五年级改写作文

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5.守株待兔成语故事改写作文

6.写作的励志谚语

7.《坐井观天》改写作文

8.《小木偶的故事交朋友》续写作文

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