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浅论司马迁的历史写作方法

2020-04-23

  中国是一个热爱历史的民族,具有强大的史学传统。早在春秋战国时期,就已出现诸如《春秋》、《尚书》、《国语》、《世本》等史学著作,这些历史著作,或以国为别,或以年为纪,或如《世本》仅录黄帝以来至春秋帝王公卿士大夫之世系,不得不说皆是零散破碎的历史著作,且尚无一套完整的历史写作方法,体例上也无一定之规。至于诸子百家的著作,有汉代经学家以为亦属史书,现在看来不过是诸子为了论证个人观点而援引的例证,虽有一定史学价值,但并非专门历史著作。而对历史有了专门记述和研究方法的,则是司马迁的《史记》。

China is a nation that loves history and has a strong historic tradition.As early as the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, historic works such as "Spring and Autumn", "Shangshu", "Mandarin", "World Ben" have appeared."Ben" only from the emperor of the Emperor Huang to the Spring and Autumn Period, the Department of Dr. and Gong Qing of the Emperor of the Spring and Autumn Period. It has to be said that all of them are scattered and broken historical works, and there is no complete set of historical writing methods. There are no certain rules on the style.As for the works of Zhuzi and Baijia, there are the Han Dynasty classics who think that they are also historical books. Now it seems to be an example of the proves that the sons are cited in order to demonstrate their personal opinions. Although it has a certain historical value, it is not a special historical work.The special description and research method for history is Sima Qian's "Historical Records".

  司马迁生于汉景帝中元五年,出生于一个史学世家,因此司马迁有着很深厚的史学基础和家学渊源。其父司马谈“学天官于唐都,受《易》于杨何,习道论于黄子”,是一位精通天文历法及道论的史家,尤为推崇道家学说。也因此,司马迁受其父影响,理论基础虽兼采百家,但以道家为重。他在《自序》中引用其父《论六家要指》曰:“墨者俭而难遵,是以其事不可遍循;然其强本节用,不可废也。法家严而少恩;然其正君臣上下之分,不可改矣。名家使人俭而善失真;然其正名实,不可不察也。”而说到道家时,则多溢美之词:“道家使人精神专一,动合无形,赡足万物;其为术也,因阴阳之大顺,采儒、墨之善,撮名、法之要,与时迁移,应物变化,立俗施事,无所不宜,指约而易操,事少而功多。”可见其学术思想。也难怪班固说他“先黄老而后六经”了。

Sima Qian was born in the five years of Emperor Hanjing and was born in a historian family. Therefore, Sima Qian has a deep historic foundation and family study. His father, Sima, talked about "Xue Heavenly Guan in Tangdu, Yiyang, Yi Yang He, and Xi Taoism in Huangzi". He is a historian who is proficient in astronomical calendar and Taoism. He especially respects Taoist doctrine. Because of this, Sima Qian was influenced by his father. Although the theoretical foundation also adopted a hundred schools, it was important. He quoted his father's "On Six Family" in "Self -Preface": "The ink people are frugal and difficult to obey, and they cannot follow their things; however, it is not used in this festival. Well; however, the distinction between the monarchs and ministers should not be changed. The famous artists make people frugal and distorted; however, it is true, and it must be inspected. "When it comes to Taoism, it is more beautiful:" Taoist family makes people spiritual spiritual spiritual Dedicated, the dynamic is invisible, and all things are available; it is also the technique of the technique, because of the obligation of yin and yang, the goodness of Confucianism, the goodness of the ink, the essence of the name, the law of the law, the change of the time, the change of things, It is not appropriate, referring to the appointment and easy to exercise, and there are fewer things. "It can be seen that its academic thoughts. It is no wonder that Ban Gu said that he "first Huang Lao and the Six Classics".

  另外,司马迁早年游历名山大川,参察风俗,访问古迹,采集传说也为其《史记》的写作奠定了坚实基础。

In addition, Sima Qian traveled to the famous mountains and rivers in his early years, inspected customs, visited the monuments, and collected the legend to laid a solid foundation for his writing of "Historical Records".

  从体例上看,《史记》用本纪、世家、列传、书、表的体裁,以人物为历史主体书写历史,即是所谓的纪传体的体例。司马迁的最大功绩,也在于这种崭新历史写作方法的创立。

From the perspective of the body, the "Historical Records" uses the genre of the Ben, Family, Biography, Books, and Watch, and write history as the historical subject, which is the so -called style of discipline.Sima Qian's greatest achievement is also the establishment of this new historical writing method.

  然而,纪传体的历史写作方法,以今天通史写作的标准来看,着实割裂了各历史人物和事件之间的关系,缺少史实的联系,而将历史看做是历史人物的生平家史。纪传体天然有助于研究个体命运,而缺乏对于大历史的关照,因此也难以从中找寻到社会历史变迁的规律认识。而《史记》所着重记录的历史时期,正是中国大变革大发展的重要历史阶段。因此不得不说,这种体例存在着许多问题。但是,如果放在当时的历史条件下看,纪传体的开创,无疑是天才创举。

However, the historical writing method of Ji Chuan's body is based on the standards of history writing, and the relationship between historical figures and events has really been split, and the connection of historical facts is lacking.Ji Chuan's body naturally helps to study individual destiny, and lacks the care of the great history, so it is difficult to find the law of social historical changes from it.The historical period recorded by the Historical Records is an important historical stage of China's great development and great development.Therefore, I have to say that there are many problems in this system.However, if it was put under the historical conditions at that time, the creation of Ji Chuan's body was undoubtedly a genius initiative.

  但是,正因为体例的缺陷,才更凸显出司马迁的过人之处。《史记》游离于帝王家史之上,不在意个人琐事而重视大历史的发展,这也是《史记》与其后二十四史相比的伟大所在。

However, it is precisely because of the defects of the system that Sima Qian's extraordinary place is even more highlighted."Historical Records" is away from the history of the emperor's family, and does not care about personal trivial and attach importance to the development of great history. This is also the greatness compared with the history of "Historical Records".

  可以说,司马迁依靠他的`个人能力,一定程度的克服了体例带来的缺陷,使《史记》脱离了流水账历史的黑洞。

It can be said that Sima Qian relied on his `personal ability to overcome the defects brought by the body to a certain extent, so that the" Historical Records "broke away from the black hole of the history of the flow account.

  正如司马迁在《自序》中言“王迹所兴,原始察终,见盛观衰”。司马迁具有对大历史观的良好关照和深刻的责任感,而本纪则因其地位之重要,天然成为他洞察王朝兴替,展现历史发展线索的前沿阵地。

Just as Sima Qian said in the "Self -Preface", "the king's trace is promoted, the original inspection is ended, and the prosperity is declining."Sima Qian has a good care and profound sense of responsibility for the great historical outlook, while because of the importance of his status, he naturally becomes the forefront of his insight into the dynasty and showing the clues of historical development.

  在本纪的记述中,对于历史发展线索并不重要而有利于对刻画其他人物发挥功用的事件,司马迁通常将其归至其他人物身上,以便于减少干扰。我们也从中可以看到司马迁对于史实极强的把握和梳理能力。同时,也因为本纪的特殊性质,所以将本纪缀连起来,这就是将历史缀连起来,成了一部编年体通史。但司马迁在本纪的写作中着眼于构成历史线索的大事件而并不纠结于帝王家史,着眼于历史的真正主导者而并不纠结于名义上的虚君。因此,帝王虽然作为本纪的主人公,却只是司马迁用来展开历史的线索和纽带。

In the description of this discipline, Sima Qian usually returns it to other characters for incidents that are not important for historical development clues and are conducive to the function of portraying other characters to play a function to reduce interference.We can also see Sima Qian's ability to grasp and sort out the strong historical facts.At the same time, because of the special nature of this discipline, it is connected to the binjin. This is to connect history and become a chronological history.However, Sima Qian focused on the big event that constituted historical clues in the writing of his age without being entangled with the history of the emperor's family. He focused on the real leaders of history and did not entangle the nominal virtual monarchs.Therefore, although the emperor, as the protagonist of his own, is only the clues and bonds used by Sima Qian to launch history.

  世家的主人公,或称霸一时,或割据一方的掌权者,例外则是孔子。孔子无权无势,却也进入世家之列,正是司马迁看到了孔子对于后世思想文化的深远作用。

The protagonist of the family, or the person who dominated or separated from one party, is Confucius.Confucius has no right to be powerful, but he also entered the list of family members. It is Sima Qian's profound role in Confucius' ideological and culture of future generations.

  列传所叙之人,贤臣名相,诸子百家,武功大将,奇人异士,风云人物,奸佞酷吏,应有尽有。而值得注意的是这几类人:一是以医救人者,如扁鹊仓公;二是坐拥千万的富商大贾,如陶朱公;三是以武犯禁者,如剧孟郭解;四是慷慨悲歌之义士,如专诸聂政;五是东市卜者,如司马季主;六是戏谑优倡,如优孟。从这些人身上,可以看出司马迁力在刻画社会各阶层人民的活动,展示社会各侧面。而细究起来,太史公志游侠“救人于厄,振人不赡”,志刺客“义不为二心”,志滑稽“不流世俗,不争势利”,体现了司马迁对慷慨悲歌之士的颂扬和赞美。而《日者列传》、《龟策列传》等,则是为了“纪风俗,志迷信”,保存社会风气习俗。从这些列传可以看出司马迁对于基层社会生态的重视,因此使《史记》有血有肉,饱含热情。

The person who has been narrated, the name of the virtuous ministers, a hundred sons, martial arts generals, strangers, strange people, and rape officials.And it is worth noting that these types of people are: one is to save people with medical, such as Bian Kanggong; the other is the wealthy businessman who is a wealthy businessman, such as Tao Zhugong; the third is the banned by martial arts, such as the drama MengGuo Jie; Fourth, the righteousness of generous tragedy, such as the specialty of Nie; the fifth is the owner of the East City, such as Sima Ji; the sixth is the jokes of You Meng.From these people, it can be seen that Sima Qianli is describing the activities of people at all levels of society and showing all aspects of society.In detail, Tai Shi Gongzhong "saves people in Er, and does not help people", and the threshold "is not the two hearts".And praise.The "Biography of the Japanese", "Turtle Celebar Biography", etc., are for "discipline customs, aspirations" to preserve social atmosphere and customs.From these biography, it can be seen that Sima Qian attaches great importance to the grassroots social ecology, so it makes the "Historical Records" flesh and blood, full of enthusiasm.

  司马迁《史记》的灵魂,则在于其批判精神。在《史记》中我们随处可见太史公快意恩仇,贬帝王,退诸侯,斥卿相,鄙奸佞,痛酷吏,轻商贾。而各篇之后的“太史公曰”,则成了他“善善,恶恶,贤贤,贱不肖”“别嫌疑,明是非”的审判法庭。

The soul of Sima Qian's "Historical Records" lies in its criticism.In "Historical Records", we can see that Tai Shigong is happy to revenge, degrade the emperor, retreats the princes, rebuke Qing Xiang, contempt, cool officials, and light business.The "Tai Shigong said" after each article has become a trial court of "goodness, evil, virtuous, virtuous, cheap", "don't be suspected, bright right and wrong".

  《史记》极少整篇引用他人文字,贾谊的《过秦论》是一个例外。司马迁对这篇文章的引用,代表了他与贾谊相同的历史观点。他批评秦时说“秦王足己而不问,遂过而不变。二世受之,因而不改,暴虐以重祸。子婴孤立无亲,危弱无辅。三主之惑,终身不悟,亡不亦宜乎?当此时也,也非无深谋远虑知化之士也,然所以不敢尽忠指过者,秦俗多忌讳之禁也,忠言未卒于口而身糜没矣。故使天下之士倾耳而听,重足而立,阖口而不言。是以三主失道,而忠臣不谏,智士不谋也。天下已乱,奸不上闻,岂不悲哉!”这也体现了司马迁对政权兴替,王朝盛衰的深刻思考。

"Historical Records" rarely quotes the text of others, and Jia Yi's "Crossing the Qin" is an exception.Sima Qian's citation of this article represents the same historical perspective as Jia Yi.He criticized Qin Shi and said, "Qin Wang is not asking, but he has passed without changing. The second generation has received it.If you do n’t realize it, it ’s not appropriate to die? When at this time, it’ s also a person who has no deep conspiracy and conspiracy, so I dare not be loyal to the person.士. Therefore, let the people of the world listen to the ears, get up, and stood up.Sadness! "This also reflects Sima Qian's deep thinking about the replacement of power and the prosperity of the dynasty.

  而对于本朝君主,他也毫不留情,说高祖“谋计用兵,可谓尽之”,说文帝“赏太轻,罚太重”,对于武帝更是讥讽。这种历史批判精神无疑给当代史学家树立了标杆,也率先挺起了史家的腰杆。

As for the monarch of the dynasty, he also relentlessly said that Gao Zu was "conspiring to use soldiers, which can be said to be done."This historical criticism spirit undoubtedly set a benchmark for contemporary historians, and also took the lead in holding the waist pole of the historians.

  那么,司马迁是不是没有喜欢的人呢?答案是否定的,太史公爱项羽,歌陈涉,崇义士,惋英雄,扬循吏,赞豪侠,好不快哉!

So, is Sima Qian who has no favorite person?The answer is no, Tai Shigong loves Xiang Yu, Song Chen, Chongyi, regrets heroes, follow the official, praise the hero, so good!

  综观上述,我们不难看出司马迁善何善,恶何恶,贤何贤,贱何不肖。也不难看出《史记》一书并不仅仅是历史的简单记述,更是历史的批判与思考。正如司马迁借贾谊之口所说:“鄙谚曰前事不忘,后事之师,是以君子为国,观之上古,验之当世,参之人事,察盛衰之理,审权势之宜,去就有序,变化因时,故旷日长久而社稷安矣。”

Looking at the above, it is not difficult for us to see Sima Qian Shan He Shan, Evil and Evil, Xian Hexian, how cheap.It is not difficult to see that the book "Historical Records" is not just a simple description of history, but also the criticism and thinking of history.As Sima Qian borrowed Jia Yizhi's mouth: "The proverb says that the past is not forgotten., Go in order, change the reason for the time, so the long -lasting society is safe. "

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