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叙事性散文的写作指导【汇编22篇】

2022-11-26 13:35 文/晨曦

  叙事散文是用人抒发作者主观,感情的散文。记叙文不同的是,叙事性散文只有高潮,没有结果,没有议论部分,而多一个抒情部分,让结构更加明了,叙事性散文一般很受到大家的欢迎。

  一、散文的特点内容上:是作者把自己对生活的感悟或至深的生活经验,通过状物、记人、写景等方式表达出来。所谓自我感悟,也就是对事物的特殊意义和美质的发现、认识

  形式上:(1)以个人抒情为主,把抒情、叙述、议论熔为一炉;(2)从细处落笔,小中见大;(3)从侧面暗示,发挥读者的想象力;(4)行文自由,结构灵活。

  综合以上两点:散文的特点是“形散神不散”。阅读散文时,要透过“形”抓住“神”,体会作者所要表达的思想情感,要抓住文章的结构和线索(文脉),要注意欣赏优美的语言。

  二、散文分类记叙散文:以记人、叙事、状物、写景为主的散文。这类散文,还有的侧重是记写一定的风物、场景。作者对它们不是纯客观的描述,而是将外物与内情融合起来,以表达一定的思想、抒发一定的感情。

  抒情散文:以抒发感情为主的散文,它主要是抒发作者对现实生活的感受、激情和意愿。抒情散文抒发的是怎样的感情,如何抒发,都与文章揭示的思想意义是否深广有极大的关系。

  议论散文:以议论为主的散文。它说理,往往借助于事例的简述,形象的描绘和感情的抒发来进行,文学色彩很浓。它同一般议论文一样,要求观点鲜明、概念准确、说理充分、层次明晰、以理服人。但是,它不需要逻辑推理,严密论证。常见的文学性很强的随笔、杂感等短小精悍的文章,皆属此类;作者常常借助于对古今故事、花鸟草虫等具体事物的描叙来说理,显得妙趣横生并富于感情。

(1)象征

  散文往往运用象征的写法,象征就是托物喻义,即通过一定的具体形象来表现一种深远的意义。这里的“具体形象”——“物”就是本体,与之相对应的事物就是象征体,“深远的意义”就是象征意义。

Prose often uses symbolic writing. Symbolism is to use objects as metaphor, that is, to express a profound meaning through a certain specific image. Here, the "concrete image" - "thing" is the noumenon, the corresponding thing is the symbol, and the "profound meaning" is the symbolic meaning.

2、散文的语言

  散文的语言感情色彩浓厚,委婉含蓄,声调和谐,表现力强。在分析时,要特别注意它在语言环境中的特定含义,要结合上下文,结合作者的思想感情,结合文章的语言风格,甚至修辞,才能既理解词语的表层意义,又理解其深层含义。

The language of prose has strong emotional color, euphemism and implication, harmonious tone and strong expressive force. When analyzing, we should pay special attention to its specific meaning in the language environment. Only by combining the context, the author's thoughts and feelings, the language style of the article, and even rhetoric, can we understand both the surface meaning and the deep meaning of words.

  五、 散文的意境

5、 The artistic conception of prose

  意境是客观生活、景物与主观思想、情感相熔铸的产物,具有含蓄深邃的美。优美的散文可谓“无韵之诗”,其意境可以与诗相媲美。阅读散文时,就要善于通过自身的感受,进入散文所描绘的意境中去。不能忽略了语言的揣摩,要调动丰富的想象,结合自己已有的知识、情感,获得主观体验,才能达到思想的共鸣与升华。

Artistic conception is the product of the fusion of objective life, scenery, subjective thoughts and emotions, and has a profound beauty. Beautiful prose can be called "poetry without rhyme", and its artistic conception can be comparable to poetry. When reading prose, we should be good at entering the artistic conception described in prose through our own feelings. We should not ignore the speculation of language. We should mobilize rich imagination, combine our existing knowledge and feelings, and obtain subjective experience to achieve the resonance and sublimation of ideas.

3.品味语言

  在散文阅读中,这是一个大的考点,更是考查的重点和难点。可以包含很多小项,分析如下:

In prose reading, this is a big test point, but also the focus and difficulty of the test. It can include many small items, which are analyzed as follows:

(2)谈感受

  这也是散文阅读的热门考题,可分为:(1)对描写对象;(2)对人物情感;(3)品味富有表现力的语言;(4)对文章某些内容或形式提出自己的看法和疑问等。此考点灵活多变,把握的关键是①能准确读懂原文的含义和作者的思想情感。②要有自己明确的观点或态度,不能模梭两可。③答题时,语言要流畅。不能出病句,语言要有层次性,可以引用诗文或名言回答此题。

This is also a popular essay reading test, which can be divided into: (1) description of the object; (2) Emotion towards characters; (3) Taste expressive language; (4) Put forward your own opinions and questions about some contents or forms of the article. This examination point is flexible, and the key to grasp is ① to accurately understand the meaning of the original text and the author's thoughts and feelings. ② We should have our own clear views or attitudes. ③ When answering questions, speak fluently. You can't write ill sentences. The language should be hierarchical. You can quote poems or famous sayings to answer this question.

(3)对比烘托

  在散文中,为了突出作者所写的对象,作者往往运用对比烘托的写法。

In prose, in order to highlight the object written by the author, the author often uses the writing method of contrast.

(3)哲理性语句的深层含义

  这样的题,往往结合发展性考题来考,有时,也会单纯考哲理性语句的含义,这种题型可以说“逢散文阅读题必有之”。这样的考题,关键要抓住中心词,要体会词语的深层含义和双关意义。

Such questions are often combined with developmental examination questions. Sometimes, they simply examine the meaning of philosophical rational sentences. This type of question can be said that "every prose reading question must have it". In such an examination, the key is to grasp the central word and understand the deep meaning and pun meaning of words.

7、关于散文阅读的答题技巧(一)散文阅读的一般方法

  1.找“要素”。阅读叙事性散文,必须掌握记叙的要素,即时间、地点、人物、事件(起因、经过、结果),通过分析人物形象和事件的演变性质来理解作品的思想内容。可以说,对人物、事件理解得越深,对文章中心思想就挖掘得越透,概括得越准。

1. Find "Elements". To read narrative prose, we must master the elements of narration, that is, time, place, characters and events (cause, process and result), and understand the ideological content of the work by analyzing the characters and the evolving nature of events. It can be said that the deeper you understand the characters and events, the more you can dig out the central idea of the article and summarize it accurately.

  2.理顺序。叙事散文以叙述和描写为基本表达方式,阅读时,应注意研究记叙的顺序(顺叙、插叙、倒叙),研究文章怎样过渡和照应,如何开头和结尾,做到既知其然,又知其所以然。

2. Management sequence. Narrative prose takes narration and description as the basic expression mode. When reading, attention should be paid to studying the sequence of narration (in sequence, interlude, flashback), studying how the article transitions and responds, and how to start and end, so as to know both the nature and the reason.

  3.抓线索。线索是情节发展的脉络,线索的作用在于联系事件和场面,贯串情节。一篇文章以什么为线索,是由文章的中心决定的。根据文章中心需要,可以以物为线,以事为线;可以以人为线,以情为线;也可以以时间为线,以地点为线。总之,凡能贯串繁多材料,体现材料间内在联系,有利于中心、事件、活动的,都可以作为文章的线索。把握文章的线索,有利于把握文章的内容、结构以及所表现的中心思想,读起来整体感更强。

3. Grab clues. The clue is the context of the development of the plot. The role of the clue is to connect events and scenes and run through the plot. What is the clue of an article is determined by the center of the article. According to the central needs of the article, we can take things as the line and things as the line; We can take people as the line and love as the line; You can also take time as the line and place as the line. In a word, anything that can run through a variety of materials, reflect the internal relationship between materials, and benefit the center, events, and activities can be used as the clue of the article. Grasping the clues of the article is conducive to grasping the content, structure and the central idea of the article, so that the overall sense is stronger.

  4.品情感。抒情散文着重表现作者的生活感受,作者的喜怒哀乐都包含在字里行间。抒情散文常常抒写作者的感情历程,表达心灵之声,因此,阅读时,首先要把握住作者的感情脉搏。即使是叙事散文,由于文中所写的人物大多是作者所接触的,有交往的,有的甚至是休戚相关、患难与共的莫逆之交,因而也常常在人物的描写、事件的记叙中融注作者深切而独特的情感。

4. Appreciate emotion. Lyric prose focuses on the expression of the author's life feelings, and the author's emotions are contained between the lines. Lyric prose often describes the author's emotional experience and expresses the voice of the soul. Therefore, when reading, you should first grasp the author's emotional pulse. Even in narrative prose, because most of the characters in the text are contacted by the author and have contacts, and some are even close friends who share weal and woe, the author's deep and unique feelings are often integrated into the description of characters and events.

  5.析哲理。就是挖掘作品中所蕴含的哲理。散文的抒情,总是在叙事、咏物的基础上进行,常说的见物思情就是这个道理。作者在文中所抒发的情感,往往是作者对生活的高度认识,即思想的升华。它传达着作者的心声,给人以启迪,仔细品味,都富有一定的生活哲理,尤其是借物抒情之作,在阅读时,一定要把握作品的立意,透过关键词句(段)去体味作者所寄寓的道理。抒情散文中的“哲理”常常隐含在以下诸方面:

5. Analysis of philosophy. Is to excavate the philosophy contained in the works. Lyricism in prose is always based on narration and chanting of things, which is often said to be the reason for thinking about things. The emotion expressed by the author in the article is often the author's high understanding of life, that is, the sublimation of thought. It conveys the voice of the author, enlightens people, tastes carefully, and is full of certain philosophy of life, especially the lyrical works by borrowing things. When reading, we must grasp the meaning of the works, and appreciate the truth that the author places in through the key words (paragraphs). The "philosophy" in lyrical prose is often implied in the following aspects:

  ①文中的警句;

① The epigram in the text;

  ②篇末的结束语;

② Concluding remarks at the end of the article;

  ③神话、传说、典故的类比;④象征;⑤“物”的形象。

③ The analogy of myth, legend and allusion; ④ Symbol; ⑤ The image of "things".

  或者说,可以总结如下:

In other words, it can be summarized as follows:

  (1)要理出作品选择了哪些材料,中心思想是什么。(2)看“形”和“神”的“结合点”是什么,也就是要抓住散文的线索。(3)看作者组织材料的顺序,选择了怎样的角度。(4)品味散文的语言。

(1) It is necessary to figure out what materials are selected and what the central idea is. (2) To see what the "combination point" of "form" and "spirit" is is to grasp the clues of prose. (3) Look at the order in which the author organizes the materials and what angle he chooses. (4) Taste the language of prose.

8.表现手法

  泛指写作上的方法,它必须是一段文字或一篇文章写作的方法。常见的表现手法有:

It generally refers to the method of writing, which must be the method of writing a paragraph or an article. Common expression techniques include:

  ①写景类——借景抒情,寓情于景,情景交融,移情于景

① Landscape painting - expressing feelings by scenery, embodying feelings in scenery, blending feelings with scenery, and empathizing with scenery

  ②咏物类——托物言志

② Chanting Things -- Expressing one's will by describing things

  ③怀古类——借景抒情、即事抒情

③ Nostalgic -- Lying by scenery and on the spot

  ④咏史类——借古讽今、借题发挥

④ History chanting -- satirizing the present by borrowing the past and giving full play to the topic

  ⑤送别类——即事抒情、即景抒情

⑤ Farewell category - instant lyric, scene lyric

  ⑥边塞类——直抒胸臆、借景抒情等等

⑥ Frontier fortress type - expressing one's feelings directly, expressing one's feelings through scenery, etc

  表现手法还有:对比衬托,侧面描写,象征,卒章显志,讽喻,动静结合(以动衬静,以静衬动,动静结合),虚实结合(以实写虚,寓虚于实,虚实相生)手法等。

There are also ways of expression: contrast and contrast, side description, symbolism, making the chapter prominent, allegory, combination of movement and stillness (with movement against stillness, with stillness against movement, with movement and stillness combined), combination of reality and falsehood (with reality to write falsehood, with falsehood in reality, with falsehood in reality), etc.

9.表达方式的作用

  一篇文章或一个文段,一般会以一种表达方式为主,为了表达主题需要,往往几种表达方式综合运用,有时会考(或变相)其它表达方式的作用,有时会把修辞融合在这里考。

An article or a paragraph will generally focus on one expression. In order to express the needs of the theme, several expressions are often used in a comprehensive way. Sometimes, the role of other expressions will be examined (or disguised), and sometimes rhetoric will be integrated here.

10、 散文的线索

  散文构思的线索,一般常见的有:以情为线索;以理为线索;以物为线索;以空间为线索;以行为为线索;以文眼为线索。有的文章不但有明线,还有暗线,线索的特征有:在结构上贯穿全文,时隐时现,有明显的标志(或是标题本身,或在文中反复出现)。

The common clues of prose conception are: taking emotion as the clue; Take reason as the clue; Take things as clues; Take space as the clue; Take behavior as a clue; Take the literary eye as the clue. Some articles not only have bright lines, but also have dark lines. The characteristics of the clues are: they run through the full text in the structure, appearing and disappearing from time to time, with obvious signs (or the title itself, or repeated in the text).

(1)字词含义

  解释词语要根据该词语所在的语境来推断。答题思路:①考虑文章或段落的主题,结合主题来答词语的含义;②根据词语前后语句的内容、含义来推断。注意:如果知道该词语的原始意义解释,一定不要忽略词语在语境中的含义。

The interpretation of a word should be inferred from the context in which the word is located. Answer ideas: ① Consider the theme of the article or paragraph, and answer the meaning of words in combination with the theme; ② Infer according to the content and meaning of the sentences before and after the words. Note: If you know the original meaning of the word, you must not ignore the meaning of the word in the context.

12.发展性考题(1)仿写

  此考点一般是给一个句子,让考生仿写一个或几个,答题要点:①要读懂题旨要求,出题人让考生做什么,怎么做;②例句的关键词语是什么,要抓住关键词语思考、答题;③在没有答题思路的情况下,要考虑和例句关键词语相对、相同的词语,例如:关键词语是天空,你可以考虑大地、高山、海洋等,联想要丰富,思维开阔。

This examination site generally gives a sentence and asks the examinee to write one or more imitations. The main points of the answer are: ① Read the requirements of the topic, what the examinee is asked to do and how to do it; ② What is the key word of the example sentence? We should grasp the key word to think and answer the question; ③ If you don't have the idea to answer the question, you should consider the words that are the same as the key words of the example sentence. For example, the key word is the sky. You can consider the earth, mountains, oceans, etc. The association should be rich and the mind should be open.

13、散文的表现手法

  常见的表现手法有:象征、托物言志、对比烘托、欲扬先抑、寓情于景、借物喻人、联想想象、设置悬念、借景抒情、渲染、修辞等。

Common expression techniques include: symbol, expressing one's ambition by relying on objects, contrast, desire to promote and restrain first, allege feelings to the scene, borrow things to compare people, associate imagination, set suspense, express feelings by the scene, exaggeration, rhetoric, etc.

(二)散文阅读应注重的几个方面及考点1.把握文章内容,概括文章主题

  散文选材广泛,行文自由,表达的思想感情丰富多彩,所以准确把握文章的主题也是散文的考点之一,把握散文主题方法是:(1)找到文中的中心句和暗示主题的提示语、关键词语,从中概括文章主题。(2)从所选的材料中概括,材料是为文章中心服务的,我们可以看文章所选的材料表达了作者什么样的观点、态度、感情,从中找到作者要表达的主题思想。

Prose is widely selected, freely written, and the thoughts and feelings expressed are rich and colorful. Therefore, accurately grasping the theme of the essay is also one of the examination points of the essay. The methods to grasp the theme of the essay are: (1) find the central sentence in the essay and the hints and key words that imply the theme, and summarize the theme of the essay. (2) To summarize from the selected materials, the materials serve the center of the article. We can see what views, attitudes and feelings the selected materials express, and find the theme that the author wants to express.

  考题形式:直接概括全文或某一段落的主题或作者的思想感情。

Test form: directly summarize the theme of the full text or a paragraph or the author's thoughts and feelings.

  答题要点:(1)能利用原文词语,尽可能使用。(2)没有原文词语可利用时,要注意语言文字表达的准确性和层次性,要做到言简意赅又不漏掉答题点。

Key points for answering questions: (1) Be able to use the original words as much as possible. (2) When there are no original words available, pay attention to the accuracy and level of language expression, and be concise and comprehensive without missing the answer points.

(3)抒情的作用

  要注意作者的思想情感倾向,一般不单独出题,往往和词语表达考点结合起来考。

Attention should be paid to the author's ideological and emotional tendencies. Generally, questions are not given separately, and they are often combined with the words and expressions examination site.

(2)词语妙用

  考题形式:品评加点词语作用(妙用)或加点词语能否删除。

Examination form: evaluate the function of the added words (magic) or whether the added words can be deleted.

  答题思路:①解释词语(在语境中)的含义。②表达作用。词语的表达作用要结合语境或主题思想来回答,要答该词语对表达作者思想感情或主题思想的作用,有时也可以考虑词语对景物描写意境的作用或人物性格等方面的作用。③体现词语的准确性或生动性。

Answer ideas: ① Explain the meaning of words (in context). ② Expression. The expression function of words should be answered in combination with the context or theme. The role of words in expressing the author's thoughts, feelings or theme should be answered. Sometimes, the role of words in the artistic conception of scenery description or the role of character character can also be considered. ③ Reflect the accuracy or vividness of words.

(1)描写的作用

  散文中的描写主要包括景物,人物描写等。小说景物描写是渲染气氛或交代时令、季节,衬托人物;散文景物描写是直接表达作者的思想情感或主题的;人物描写主要是考外貌,神态,动作,心理,有关细节描写的地方值得注意。人物描写主要是突出人物的思想性格。

The description in prose mainly includes scenery, character description, etc. The scene description in the novel is to exaggerate the atmosphere or explain the seasons and seasons to set off the characters; The description of scenery in prose directly expresses the author's thoughts, feelings or themes; Character description mainly focuses on appearance, demeanor, action and psychology, and the details should be noted. Character description is mainly to highlight the ideological character of the characters.

(2)议论的作用

  散文中的议论,往往是揭示文章的主题或和抒情结合在一起,表达作者的思想情感,此考点一般不单独出题。

The argumentation in prose often reveals the theme of the article or combines with lyricism to express the author's thoughts and feelings. This examination point is generally not given separately.

(4)欲扬先抑

  文似看山不喜平,散文更讲究波澜,要赞美某种事物,先表达对它没有好感;想歌颂某个人物,先说他的不足等等,然后根据情节的发展,达到歌颂与赞美的目的,而且使这种歌颂与赞美得到强调。

It seems that the prose is not happy with the mountains, and the prose is more particular about the waves. If you want to praise something, you should first express your bad feelings for it; If you want to eulogize a certain character, you should first say his shortcomings, and then, according to the development of the plot, achieve the purpose of eulogizing and praising, and make this kind of eulogizing and praising emphasized.

(2)托物言志

  就是借物喻人,是散文中写景状物的重要方法。也就是把所写的景物或景象拟人化,赋予它人的思想情感和志向,

It is an important method of describing scenery like things in prose. That is to personify the scenery or scene and endow it with people's thoughts, feelings and aspirations,

21. 散文的思想内容

  散文中深刻的意蕴是依附于含有一定象征意味的具体事物。写人的散文,可以分析人物与环境之间的关系,结合作者对人物的态度、感情来理解作品的思想内容;叙事散文,可以分析人物在事件中的表现、场面细节把握作品内容;写景状物抒情,要分析行文线索、写法、象征意义,从而了解作品的思想内容。

The profound implication in prose is attached to the concrete things with certain symbolic meanings. The prose of writing people can analyze the relationship between the characters and the environment, and understand the ideological content of the work by combining the author's attitude and feelings towards the characters; Narrative prose can analyze the performance of the characters in the event and grasp the content of the work in detail; In order to express feelings through scenery, it is necessary to analyze the writing clues, writing methods and symbolic meanings, so as to understand the ideological content of the work.

22.理清文章脉络,把握顺序

  作者为了表达自己的思想情感,会精心组织,选取材料;在表达上更是精益求精,特别注意词语在表达上的顺序,层次和分寸感。散文中的顺序,一般包括:选取的材料顺序、段落顺序、句子顺序、词语顺序等。比如,线索是作者选择材料的准绳,我们形象称之为线索。是作者选择材料脉络或描写、记叙的脉络。例如:《背影》以父亲的背影为线索;《藤野先生》以“我与藤野先生交往的过程”和“我的爱国思想感情”为线索等。

In order to express his thoughts and feelings, the author will carefully organize and select materials; In terms of expression, we strive for perfection, paying special attention to the order, level and sense of propriety of words in expression. The order in prose generally includes: the order of selected materials, paragraph order, sentence order, word order, etc. For example, clues are the criteria for the author to select materials, which we call clues. It is the context of the author's choice of materials or description and narration. For example, "The Back" takes the father's back as a clue; Mr. Fujino takes "the process of my communication with Mr. Fujino" and "my patriotic thoughts and feelings" as clues.

  考题形式:直接问文章的线索是什么或说说作者选择材料的依据等。

Examination form: directly ask what the clues of the article are or tell the basis of the author's choice of materials.

  答题要点:找到线索,根据提问灵活回答。关键是能判断准线索。

Key points: find clues and answer flexibly according to questions. The key is to be able to judge accurate clues.

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